Fusion splicing is the process of fusing or welding two fibers together usually by an electric arc. Fusion splicing is the most widely used method of splicing as it provides for the lowest loss and least reflectance, as well as providing the strongest and most reliable joint between two fibers.Virtually all singlemode splices are fusion. Multimode fibers can be harder to fusion splice as the larger core with many layers of glass that produces the graded-index profile are sometimes harder to match up, especially with fibers of different types or manufacturers.
Fusion splicing may be done one fiber at a time or a complete fiber ribbon from ribbon cable at one time. First we'll look at single fiber splicing and then ribbon splicing.
Fusion splicing machines are mostly automated tools that require you preset the splicing parameters or choose factory recommended settings that will control the splicing process itself. All require the use of a precision fiber cleaver that scribes and breaks (cleaves) the fibers to be spliced precisely, as the quality of the splice will depend on the quality of the cleave. Most splicing machines come with a recommended cleaver.